Stakeholders of the HoF are connected to hybrid network, patients and clinicians can retrieve data at their ease. With multiple locations and such a high volume of patients, efficient communication is essential. In healthcare IT technology providers increasingly expanding their business in these regions. After reviewing the concept of connected HoF and discussing its requirements and challenges, we propose a hybrid optical-radio network as the key connectivity infrastructure for hospitals in the future. From the safety point of view, the communication must not induce excessive electromagnetic radiation to the human tissues, measured by the specific absorption rate (SAR). The changing operational environments related to, e.g., the visible light channel state set challenges affecting to the complexity of the reconfigurable hybrid RF/system. 5G and beyond systems are moving to higher frequencies to achieve higher throughput which will ease the problem. 845–848, 1999. Very-high frequency bands as well as light are suitable mostly for short-range communications, therefore relevant to the indoor-environments of the HoF. 183, pp. Healthcare systems can be significantly improved with the lower coast and higher quality of services by using ultra wideband technology. The role of public and private stakeholders as transferors of new concepts from theory into practice, Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 2, pp. Information technology (IT) plays an increasingly important and prominent role in the health sector. We also discuss possible operation scenarios and applications that can be introduced in HoF as well as outline potential challenges. In fact, as a result of the increasing ubiquity and performance of wireless and mobile networks, the concept of hospital as a well-defined place where patients receive medical treatment is likely to evolve as a pervasive healthcare. The overall goal of reconfiguration is to make our proposed system flexible to adopt changes and in certain cases user can implement its own policies to meet own requirement. 14, No. There is increasing demand in the healthcare industry to retrieve, store, share, and send data in a various format to various devices across a particular healthcare institution. Embedded benefits in cooperative mode including parallel data transmission, redundancy, increased spectrum etc., make this approach attractive in hospitals. Journal of Public Health Research, Vol. Radio frequency (RF) communications have been the preferred technology to provide a seamless communication highway for connecting these stakeholders. 7213, pp. Offloading can be done in case of huge sensors’ network i.e., transmitting data to servers after procedure is completed. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. in 2014 IEEE Faible Tension Faible Consommation, IEEE, pp. Light-based communications, such as VLC is also a highly attractive communication technology for healthcare environments. This technology was invented by telecom equipment vendor Ericsson. These systems can work through mobile devices, desktops, TVs, tablets and more. ... are the primary goals in wireless communications that AI may provide ground-breaking … However, it will be advantageous to design the hybrid solutions which takes advantage of very high throughput offered by visible light communication. On the other hand, these requirements for outpatient care are somewhat opposite. Wi-fi for visitors In terms of current developments of future communication networks, 5G networks are about to be deployed and expected to be highly used in the 2020–2030 decade. Ultra-low latency and high reliability is required also e.g., in robot surgery. ZigBee can be used almost anywhere, as it is easy to implement and requires little power to operate. M. S. Saud, and M. Katz, Implementation of a hybrid optical-RF wireless network with fast network handover, in European Wireless 2017; 23th European Wireless Conference, VDE, pp. wireless communication for doctors and nurses . 1550–1560, 2018. The brain of this hybrid network is an intelligent software that can respond to dynamic changes of the network, type or requirements of the healthcare scenario, etc., to select the appropriate network or transmission mode. Wireless communication devices can be used in any area of the hospital. Interference free reliable data transmission could be challenging with the deployment of IoT where several wireless sensors will be transmitting data at the same time. 1–5, 2015. VLC provide a viable way to reduce the RF nodes communication needs which enables more energy efficient operation for them. In this paper, we assume a large hospital with the most common healthcare scenarios and other required facilities. As every administrator knows, effective communication in healthcare is a keystone of efficient medical practices. The disadvantage of implementing fast handover is loss of resources in continuous link monitoring and unnecessary switching in short interruptions that could result in packet loss. S. Liang, H. Tian, B. Wireless communications have an utmost important role in the HoF as the goal of the concept is to connect all key stakeholders. threat to the patient. L. Taylor, Hospitals of the future, British Medical Journal, Vol. In addition to these in-hospital spaces, outpatient health care needs to be considered in the HoF model. In an in-building network, the service is provided and managed inside the premises of the hospital. As mentioned above the packet loss is inevitable in case of link failure, moreover the frequent handover due to short interruptions could increase the packet loss too, in such scenarios the predictive handover could be more suitable. It enables doctors or nurses to predict and diagnose adverse events in advance. X. Li, R. Zhang and L. Hanzo, Cooperative load balancing in hybrid visible light communications and WiFi, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. Techopedia explains Wireless Communications The large and eclectic wireless node base in future hospitals needs to operate without any interference between nodes. R. Sprow, Planning Hospitals of the Future. ROWBAN provides a viable solution to monitor several chronic health factors, no matter the patient is stationary or moving, the hybrid optical-radio nodes can play a vital role in transmitting data to the cloud or HoF. Wireless medical communications by replacing assisting people’s work and replacing wired links by wireless connections in a hospital are applying new applications in a healthcare and welfare sector. 1–6, 2017. Remote healthcare is getting more attention nowadays as for chronic patients the self-monitoring of chronic indicators such as blood sugar, blood pressure, heart rate etc., could strengthen them to cure their disease. In these facilities, the latency of the wireless link can be high for transporting data to the servers for diagnostics. RFID is a wireless communication technology used for data transfer and identification of objects using electromagnetic waves. Both network approaches have unique advantages, but no single network is best suitable for all the scenarios of the HoF. G. Cossu, W. Ali, R. Corsini and E. Ciaramella, Gigabit-class optical wireless communication system at indoor distances (1.5–4 m), Optics Express, Vol. Section 5 introduces the challenges associated with the communication systems of HoF. The SAR load to humans will be increased as well. In addition, the support from the Academy of Finland 6Genesis Flagship Project is warmly acknowledged. We propose a highly flexible and versatile reconfigurable hybrid optical-radio wireless communication network for both stationary and ambulatory healthcare. The software can be reconfigure remotely. Hybrid systems should operate in a seamless way to select the best technology in real-time to offer required communication performance without sacrificing security and reliability. in 2017 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), IEEE, pp. Having stored online, the clinicians and the patients can access their data timelessly, the only condition is to have a faster RF wireless link to the cloud. The number of wireless devices is increasing very rapidly, and the radio frequency bands are becoming very crowded. Diagnostics includes for instance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) scans, laboratory services, ultrasound imaging, electroencephalography (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), nuclear medicine and others. Localization accuracy depends on the signal bandwidth and therefore visible light communication could provide more accurate solution in comparison to current solutions. For example, the collaborative IoT could allow several … But for mobile user performing handover not only between different optical APs as well as RF is key. J. Ehrich, E. Molloy, R. Kerbl, M. Pettoello-Mantovani and A. Gerber-Grote, Conceptual design of future children’s hospitals in Europe. In the past decade, visible light communications (VLC) technology has rapidly emerged as a viable way to transmit information wirelessly. As introduced above, there are various potential applications enabled by wireless communication at future hospitals. Various consideration is required to be made while implementing wireless communication within a healthcare institutions such as systems capacity for transmitting voice, data, and video information as well as its reliability and coverage. The hybrid radio-optical communication system can be used in principle in every scenario of the HoF. 54, No. ➨Easy Installation: Wireless networks are easy to install and easy to maintain compare to messy wired counterparts.This will help when network grows and will have hundreds to thousands of customers. 78–87, 2013. By collecting information about the network nodes behavior and communication related parameters, ML and AI can optimize the hybrid system performance. The optical-radio hotspots form a small coverage cells, as in [48] author simulated overlapping and non-overlapping small coverage cells formed by hybrid network, the throughput of overlapping hybrid cells are found to be maximum but the load balancing is clearly a challenge in order to maximize the throughput in crowded hybrid network. Healthcare information is being stored and shared using a variety of wireless communication technology: Wi-Fi VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) Bluetooth Z-Wave RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) WWAN (Wireless Wide Area Networks) Mobile Internet And More T. Rakia, H. C. Yang, F. Gebali, and M. S. Alouini, Dual-hop VLC/RF transmission system with energy harvesting relay under delay constraint. J. 1446–1458, 2010. VLC exploits modern solid-state light sources, i.e., white light emitting diodes (LEDs) to create, in addition to illumination, an optical transmission capable to convey information, in the same way that short-range radio transmissions do. In Wired Communication, the medium is a physical path like Co-axial Cables, Twisted Pair Cables and Optical Fiber Links etc. ZigBee is a wireless communication standard designed to address the unique needs of low-power, low-cost wireless sensor, and control networks. Int J Wireless Inf Networks 27, 4–17 (2020). The reconfigurable radio-optical wireless body area network ROWBAN is an extension of conventional WBAN, adding optical nodes to the existing WBAN mesh to make it more generic for HoF. Cooperative mode, both optical and radio transceivers are working simultaneously. Oulu University Hospital in Finland is developing its own HoF concept called Future Hospital OYS 2030 [5]. Copyright © Persistence Market Research. 4, pp. 6, pp. Wi-Fi is a communication technology which is leveraged in a variety of healthcare applications such as infusion pumps, oxygen monitoring devices, and smart beds. G. Pan, H. Lei, Z. Ding, and Q. Ni, On 3-D hybrid VLC-RF systems with light energy harvesting and OMA scheme over RF links. Correspondence to Combining radio and optical wireless systems has been described and exploited in [26, 27], where authors propose the use of a reconfigurable radio-optical network. Interestingly, the key advantages of VLC are precisely in those areas where radio systems are weak, for instance security, interference tolerance and generation, electromagnetic exposure point of view. The algorithm observes the instantaneous conditions and establishes the UL and DL channels complying the conditions according to the predefined profile stored in algorithm. Human body monitoring can be performed M. Kafafy, Y. Fahmy, M. Abdallah, and M. Khairy, Power efficient downlink resource allocation for hybrid RF/VLC wireless networks. Otherwise the tradeoff between achieved gains and increased complexity will turn negative. When the signal (a beam of modulated microwave) is sent near the satellite then, satellite amplifies the signal and sent it back to the antenna receiver which is located on the surface of the earth. Provide connectivity on the undergoing procedure are expected to have a huge amount radio-based! 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