The main goal of the rebellion was the destruction of left-wing organisations. Spanish Civil War: Casualties; Spanish Civil War: Casualties. By stepping on the wrong feet, resistances began to mount against the government. On one side were the anarchists and militant socialists, who viewed the war as a revolutionary struggle and spearheaded widespread collectivization of agriculture, industry, and services; on the other were the more moderate socialists and republicans, whose objective was the preservation of the Republic. Exploding in July 1936, the war in Spain soiled the 20th century; it was among the bloodiest wars ever to take place on the European continent. Spanish Civil War (1936 39), military revolt against the Republican government of Spain, supported by conservative elements within the country. Nationalist troops in Irun, Spain, during the Spanish Civil War. Politically, their differences often found extreme and vehement expression in parties such as the Fascist-oriented Falange and the militant anarchists. The Nationalists, as the rebels were called, received aid from fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. As Forrest (2000) tells us, the background narrative of the war go far back to the year of 1898 when Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines – each economically valuable Spanish colonies – were lost to the United States. STUDY. Causes of the Spanish Civil War Notes.pptx: File Size: 7080 kb: File Type: pptx: Download File. Spain maintained neutrality during World War I. Seeking allies against the threat of Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union had embraced a Popular Front strategy, and, as a result, the Comintern directed Spanish communists to support the Republicans. The country’s political factions had a problem with the operations of democracy. The Republicans received aid from the Soviet Union as well as from the International Brigades, composed of volunteers from Europe and North America. Here is a summary of the root causes of the Spanish Civil War: Irresponsible Dictatorial Government. Spanish Civil War. The Spanish Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil Española) was a civil war in Spain fought from 1936 to 1939. August: General Franco’s regime got recognition from the Vatican. Mistakenly, the government started targeting the comfort of the privileged classes, including Catholics, military men, industrialists, and landowners. Spanish Civil War, (1936–39), military revolt against the Republican government of Spain, supported by conservative elements within the country. Sacagawea Biography – Family, Tribe, Husband, Children, Expedition, & Death, Women Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court and their achievements, Presidential Medal of Freedom – History, meaning, recipients, & facts, Major Achievements of Sandra Day O’Connor, the First Woman Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. Long-term causes (1) Pertinent divisions in Spanish society = laid the foundation for polarization (2) The role of the army and its involvement in politics (tradition of "pronunciamento") (3) Economic backwardness (4) Regional nationalisms. World History Edu © 2020. The increased hardships also confused the new government, leaving them with dangerous options on their table. Spanish civil war (Causes) IB 1. Meanwhile, monarchist leader and dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera couldn’t do anything to support the poor masses after coming into power in a 1923 coup. An estimated 200,000 died from combat-related causes. The Spanish Civil War of 1936–39 is remembered today as a sort of Second World War-in-training, a playoff game before the championship match between Team Axis and Team Allies a … Rivera and his troops took power from King Alfonso XIII, but his failure to properly govern the people led to conflicts and divisions in Spain. In December 1938 they moved upon Catalonia in the northeast, forcing the Republican armies there northward toward France. FACT CHECK: At worldhistoryedu.com, we strive for utmost accuracy and objectivity. It allowed women to fight openly on the battlefield, a rare occurrence in twentieth century European warfare. What began as a failed coup spiraled into a proxy war between Europe’s fascist and communist countries, with the future Allies backing the Republicans and the Axis powers supporting Franco’s Nationalists. July: Uprisings in Spanish Morocco and other places, followed by the dissolution of the regular army. The Spanish regions of Catalonia and Basque were interested in acquiring their own Independence. Here is a summary of the root causes of the Spanish Civil War: Spain maintained neutrality during World War I. The main antagonists were the Nationalists under Gen. Francisco Franco and the Republicans under Francisco Largo Caballero and, later, Juan Negrín. Both the Nationalist and Republican sides, seeing themselves as too weak to win a quick victory, turned abroad for help. Fascist and extreme-right forces responded in July 1936 with an army mutiny and coup attempt that expanded into a civil war. Adolf Hitler (Germany) supported the Nationalists (the rebels). Spanish Nationalists in position along the rugged Huesca front in northern Spain during the Spanish Civil War, December 23, 1936. The Republicans received aid from the Soviet Union as well as from the International Brigades, composed of volunteers from Europe and the United States. February: The Popular Front party won big time in the election ; Azana was made Prime Minister (president). 1936-1939. Causes and timeline of the Spanish Civil War. Unemployment rose high to the skies. The Nationalists drove a salient eastward through Teruel, reaching the Mediterranean and splitting the republic in two in April 1938. When an initial military coup failed to win control of the entire country, a bloody civil war ensued, fought with great ferocity on both sides. In addition to the various political strife, the Catalan region in the northeast of the country wanted a complete breakaway from Spain; something that the central government wouldn’t raise a finger. By February 1939, 250,000 Republican soldiers, together with an equal number of civilians, had fled across the border into France. The war also had mobilized many artists and intellectuals to take up arms. The war also served to remove the influence of the Catholic Church in defining gender roles on the Republican side. Tags: Civil WarsGeneral FrancoSpainSpanish Civil War EraSpanish Civil War TimelineTimeline, Your email address will not be published. On the night of 17 July 1936, the Spanish army, inspired most of all by General Franco, started the Spanish Civil War by rebelling against the Second Republic. Riots, protests, and strike actions rocked Spain. While ground combat was somewhat reminiscent of World War I—tanks had a comparatively limited role, and lines remained fixed for months at a time—Hermann Göring’s Luftwaffe offered a glimpse of the role that air power would play in the German blitzkrieg. At that time, the Roman Catholic Church had a noticeable influence in Spain – this kept the Catholics at arm’s length from the Republican government. Deep division in Spanish society. During that time interval, the civil war in Spain killed more than 500,000 people. To add fuel to fire, government realized that the military had way too much power which must be reduced immediately – army officers were forcefully retired from service. Your email address will not be published. Among the most notable artistic responses to the war were the novels Man’s Hope (1938) by André Malraux, Adventures of a Young Man (1939) by John Dos Passos, and For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) by Ernest Hemingway; George Orwell’s memoir Homage to Catalonia (1938); Pablo Picasso’s painting Guernica (1937); and Robert Capa’s photograph Death of a Loyalist Soldier, Spain (1936). At the turn of the 19th century, Spain wasn’t unified and stable. A well-planned military uprising began on July 17, 1936, in garrison towns throughout Spain. On March 7 a civil war broke out in Madrid between communist and anticommunist factions. The Causes of the War. However, the on of the main causes was all sides’ failure to compromise and to respect the rights and opinions of others. Despite assistance from the USSR and the International Brigades, the republic succumbed and … About 40,000 foreigners fought on the Republican side in the International Brigades largely under the command of the Comintern, and 20,000 others served in medical or auxiliary units. The constitutional monarchy of the early 1900s incompetently dealt with the economic instability. Due to the international political climateat t… The widespread division of Spain according to ideological and social lines, made possible the eruption of the bloody war that rocked the country to its core. The main causes for the beginning of the Spanish Civil War and why these causes had lead Spain into the Spanish civil war. The Civil War took place because the rising was successful only in Old Castile, in Navarra, where Carlist support was decisive, and, of the…. The following day the remnant of the Republican government surrendered; Franco would establish himself as dictator and remain in power until his death on November 20, 1975. Here, we dig into the matters surrounding the ignition of this destructive Spanish Civil War and major events in its timeline. More riots and protests occurred until the party won the 1936 elections; Azana became the Prime Minister. Causes of the Spanish Civil War . The war was an outcome of a polarization of Spanish life and politics that had developed over previous decades. The captaincy of the Nationalists was gradually assumed by General Franco, leading forces he had brought from Morocco. In the early 1930s, increased division and disparity among Spain’s social classes notched the country to a tipping point. As more problems poured in, a full-blown Spanish Civil War ignited in July 1936 when General Francisco Franco’s army revolted against the Second Spanish Republic. Both the poor and the employed class struggled to get their daily bread. The Republican forces had put down the uprising in other areas, except for some of the larger Andalusian cities, including Sevilla (Seville), Granada, and Córdoba. A succession of governmental crises culminated in the elections of February 16, 1936, which brought to power a Popular Front government supported by most of the parties of the left and opposed by the parties of the right and what remained of the centre. The Causes of the Spanish Civil War Worksheet includes an overview and breakdown of the causes of the Spanish Civil War. Identify the main divisions within Spanish society and discuss to what extent each contributed to civil war in Spain; Discuss both long-term and short-term causes of the Spanish Civil War; Identify and describe key people involved in the buildup to civil war The International Brigade resisted the attacks. Disparate most of the other countries of Western Europe at that time, the Spain have never completed its revolution. From, The military uprising started in Morocco on July 17, 1936, and quickly spread to the garrisons of metropolitan Spain. When an initial military coup failed to win control of the entire country, a bloody civil war ensued, fought with great ferocity on both sides. On the other side, the Republican, were urban workers, most agricultural labourers, and many of the educated middle class. This victory saw Spain become a Republic, and the monarchy was discarded. On causes of the war, numerous factors came into play. June: Bilbao city conquered by Nationalists. The elite class could feel the bells of communism ringing close to their properties. Hello and welcome to Feature History, featuring The Spanish Civil War, zero mic etiquette, and a super subtle political lesson. Spain spent much of the 1920s under the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera, and the economic hardships caused by the Great Depression intensified polarization within the Spanish public. Such attitudes made the war a terrible tragedy before it ended in April 1939. For Britain and France, the conflict represented a new threat to the international equilibrium that they were struggling to preserve, which in 1939 collapsed into World War II. The years between 1936 & 1939 were very bloody for Spanish citizens. By November 1936 the Nationalists had advanced to the outskirts of Madrid. Omissions? In January 1933, tensions further escalated when government troops fatally shot 25 people in an attempt to arrest them. Causes of the spanish civil war in essay rating. In rural communities, stronger peasants would do anything to succeed such as confiscating lands. General Rivera did not have the slightest clue on how to manage Spain’s financial struggles. Corrections? When an initial military coup failed to win control of the entire country, a bloody civil war ensued, fought with great ferocity on both sides. Sourcework Exercise: The Causes of the Spanish Civil War A selection … Spanish Civil War: Overview and Detailed Study Part 1: During the 1930s, Spain was undergoing a lot of social, political, and economic turmoil that eventually launched it into civil war. Required fields are marked *. Spanish Civil War A war between brothers 2. By July 21 the rebels had achieved control in Spanish Morocco, the Canary Islands, and the Balearic Islands (except Minorca) and in the part of Spain north of the Guadarrama mountains and the Ebro River, except for Asturias, Santander, and the Basque provinces along the north coast and the region of Catalonia in the northeast. April: Republicans finally agreed that General Francisco Franco had won; they surrendered completely. But the most fundamental cause had a lot to do with the irresponsibility of the Spanish government. Causes of the SCW overview.pdf: File Size: 114 kb: File Type: pdf: Download File. “The Internationals—United with the Spaniards We Fight the Invader,” poster by Parrilla, published by the International Brigades, 1936–37. July: Republican army weakened following the Battle of the Ebro. October: International Brigade departed Spain. PLAY. Paul Preston: "no-one, except a tiny minority on the lunatic fringe on the extreme right or left, believe that Spain's problems could be solved only by war." Labor unrest was widespread in the early 1930s, and the election of February 16, 1936, brought to power a leftist Popular Front government. The battlefield, a rare occurrence in twentieth century European spanish civil war causes get trusted stories delivered right to inbox! The growth of the new Republic wasn ’ t look right, ’! 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